Chilika Lake: A Comprehensive Guide to India’s Largest Coastal Lagoon

Chilika Lake
Chilika Lake

Chilika Lake is a breathtaking natural wonder located on the eastern coast of India, in the state of Odisha. It is the largest coastal lagoon in the country and the second-largest in the world. The lake has gained immense popularity for its scenic beauty, rich biodiversity, and unique ecosystems. In this article, we’ll delve deep into the various aspects of Chilika Lake, including its geography, history, ecology, tourism, and conservation efforts.

Geography of Chilika Lake


Chilika Lake is situated along the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal, between the Khurda and Ganjam districts of Odisha. The lake is spread across an area of approximately 1,100 square kilometers, making it one of the largest saltwater lakes in the world.


The size of Chilika Lake varies seasonally due to the influx of freshwater from rivers and the outflow of water into the Bay of Bengal. The lake’s maximum length is approximately 64 kilometers, while its width ranges between 18 and 20 kilometers. The lake is separated from the Bay of Bengal by a narrow strip of land called a spit, which creates a unique brackish water ecosystem.


Ancient Times

Chilika Lake has a rich history that dates back to ancient times. It is mentioned in several ancient texts, including the Mahabharata and the Puranas. The lake was once a thriving port for trade and commerce, connecting India with other parts of Asia.

Modern Era

Over time, Chilika Lake has undergone significant changes due to natural and human-induced factors. The lake has been a source of livelihood for local communities, who depend on fishing and tourism for their sustenance. In recent years, efforts have been made to conserve and protect the lake’s fragile ecosystems.

Ecology of Chilika Lake


Chilika Lake boasts a rich variety of plant life, including submerged and emergent aquatic plants, mangroves, and floating vegetation. These plants play a crucial role in maintaining the ecological balance of the lake and providing habitats for various aquatic species.


The lake is home to a diverse range of animal species, including fish, crustaceans, reptiles, and mammals. Chilika Lake is particularly famous for its avian diversity, attracting migratory birds from as far as Siberia and Central Asia during the winter months. The lake also supports a thriving population of Irrawaddy dolphins, which are listed as “vulnerable” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

Birdwatcher’s Paradise

Migratory Birds

Chilika Lake is a haven for birdwatchers, with over 200 species of migratory birds visiting the lake each year. Some of the prominent migratory birds found in the lake include the greater flamingo, Eurasian wigeon, pintail, and black-tailed godwit. The Nalabana Island, located in the central part of the lake, serves as a sanctuary for these birds and provides an excellent opportunity for birdwatching.

Endangered Species

In addition to migratory birds, Chilika Lake is also home to several endangered and vulnerable bird species. The Indian skimmer, a critically endangered bird species, is known to breed in the lake. Other vulnerable species found in the lake include the Dalmatian pelican, the spot-billed pelican, and the greater adjutant.

Chilika Lake and Fishing Industry

Fishermen Communities

The livelihood of thousands of fishermen living in the vicinity of Chilika Lake is closely linked to the lake’s rich fisheries resources. These communities have developed unique fishing techniques and practices that have been passed down through generations.

Fishing Techniques

Fishermen in Chilika Lake use a variety of fishing techniques, including traditional traps, nets, and hooks, to catch fish and other aquatic species. The lake is known for its abundance of prawns, crabs, and a variety of fish species, making it a crucial source of income for the local communities.

Tourism at Chilika Lake


One of the most popular activities for tourists visiting Chilika Lake is boating. The lake offers a range of boating options, from traditional country boats to motorboats, allowing visitors to explore the lake’s vast expanse and its numerous islands. Boating in Chilika Lake provides an opportunity to witness the lake’s rich biodiversity and stunning landscapes.

Island Visits

Chilika Lake is dotted with several islands, each with its unique charm and attractions. Nalabana Island, for instance, is a bird sanctuary and a paradise for birdwatchers. Kalijai Island, on the other hand, is famous for the Kalijai Temple and the annual Makar Sankranti festival. Other notable islands include Parikud, Malud, and Honeymoon Island.

Chilika Lake Resorts and Accommodation

Luxury Resorts

For those looking for a luxurious stay near Chilika Lake, there are several high-end resorts that offer top-notch amenities and services. These resorts provide stunning views of the lake and its surroundings, along with comfortable accommodations and world-class facilities.

Budget-friendly Stays

For budget-conscious travelers, there are plenty of affordable accommodation options available near Chilika Lake. These include guesthouses, homestays, and budget hotels, which offer clean and comfortable rooms at reasonable prices.

Cuisine around Chilika Lake

Local Delicacies

The cuisine around Chilika Lake is influenced by the rich culinary traditions of Odisha. Local delicacies include dishes made from locally sourced ingredients, such as fish, prawns, and crabs, as well as vegetarian options like dalma (lentil stew) and pitha (rice cake).

Seafood Specialties

Chilika Lake is renowned for its seafood, with prawns and crabs being the most sought-after delicacies. Visitors can enjoy a variety of seafood dishes, including grilled prawns, crab curry, and fish fry, prepared using traditional recipes and spices.

Festivals Celebrated near Chilika Lake

Makar Sankranti

Makar Sankranti, also known as Pongal or Uttarayan, is one of the most significant festivals celebrated near Chilika Lake. The festival marks the transition of the sun into the zodiac sign of Capricorn and is celebrated with great enthusiasm and fervor. The Kalijai Temple on Kalijai Island becomes the center of festivities, with devotees thronging the temple to seek blessings.

Chilika Mahotsav

The Chilika Mahotsav is an annual cultural festival that celebrates the rich heritage and biodiversity of Chilika Lake. The festival features a variety of cultural performances, including dance, music, and theater, as well as exhibitions showcasing local handicrafts and cuisine.

Conservation Efforts

Government Initiatives

The Government of India has undertaken several initiatives to conserve and protect Chilika Lake. The lake has been designated as a Ramsar Site, which recognizes its importance as a wetland of international significance. The Chilika Development Authority (CDA) has been established to oversee the conservation and management of the lake.

NGO Involvement

Several non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and environmental groups are actively involved in the conservation efforts for Chilika Lake. These organizations work towards preserving the lake’s biodiversity, promoting sustainable fishing practices, and creating awareness among the local communities about the importance of conserving the lake.

Chilika Lake and Climate Change


Climate change poses a significant threat to Chilika Lake and its ecosystems. The lake has been experiencing changes in water temperature, salinity levels, and water levels, which can have adverse effects on its flora and fauna. The migration patterns of birds visiting the lake have also been affected by climate change.


Efforts are being made to mitigate the impact of climate change on Chilika Lake. These include measures to reduce pollution, conserve water resources, and promote sustainable fishing practices. Community-based adaptation strategies are also being explored to enhance the resilience of the local communities and ecosystems to the effects of climate change.

Travel Tips for Visiting Chilika Lake

Best Time to Visit

The best time to visit Chilika Lake is during the winter months, from November to February, when the weather is pleasant, and the lake is teeming with migratory birds. This is also the ideal time for birdwatching and boating.

Essential Items to Carry

When visiting Chilika Lake, it is advisable to carry essentials such as sunscreen, hats, sunglasses, and binoculars for birdwatching. Comfortable clothing and sturdy footwear are also recommended for exploring the lake and its surroundings.

Nearby Attractions to Chilika Lake

Puri Beach

Puri Beach, located in the holy city of Puri, is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Odisha. The beach is known for its golden sands, stunning sunsets, and vibrant atmosphere. It is an ideal place for relaxing and enjoying various beach activities.

Konark Sun Temple

The Konark Sun Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is located about 50 kilometers from Chilika Lake. The temple is an architectural marvel and is dedicated to the Sun God, Surya. The intricately carved sculptures and the chariot-shaped structure of the temple make it a must-visit destination.


Chilika Lake has been featured in several Indian movies, showcasing its scenic beauty and cultural significance. The lake’s picturesque landscapes and vibrant local communities have served as the backdrop for various film productions.


The lake has also found a place in literature, with several authors and poets drawing inspiration from its natural beauty and rich history. Chilika Lake has been the subject of poems, short stories, and novels, highlighting its cultural and ecological importance.

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FAQs about Chilika Lake

What is the best time to visit Chilika Lake for birdwatching?

The best time to visit Chilika Lake for birdwatching is during the winter months, from November to February when the lake is visited by a large number of migratory birds.

Can I go boating in Chilika Lake?

Yes, boating is one of the most popular activities in Chilika Lake. There are various boating options available, including traditional country boats and motorboats, which allow visitors to explore the lake and its islands.

Is Chilika Lake a freshwater or saltwater lake?

Chilika Lake is a brackish water lagoon, which means it contains a mix of freshwater and saltwater. The salinity levels in the lake vary seasonally and regionally.

Are there any endangered species in Chilika Lake?

Yes, Chilika Lake is home to several endangered and vulnerable species, including the Irrawaddy dolphin and the Indian skimmer.

What are the main sources of livelihood for the communities around Chilika Lake?

Fishing and tourism are the main sources of livelihood for the communities living around Chilika Lake. The lake’s rich fisheries resources and its popularity as a tourist destination provide income and employment opportunities for the local population.

How can I reach Chilika Lake?

Chilika Lake is easily accessible by road, rail, and air. The nearest railway station is at Balugaon, and the nearest airport is at Bhubaneswar. The lake can also be reached by road from the nearby cities of Puri and Bhubaneswar.


Chilika Lake is a true gem of India’s natural heritage, offering a unique blend of breathtaking landscapes, rich biodiversity, and cultural significance. Whether you are a nature enthusiast, a birdwatcher, or a traveler seeking tranquility and beauty, Chilika Lake has something to offer for everyone. By visiting the lake and participating in responsible tourism practices, we can contribute to conservation efforts and help preserve this remarkable ecosystem for future generations.

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