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Italy, officially known as the Italian Republic, is a country located in southern Europe. It is a peninsula that extends into the Mediterranean Sea, and is surrounded by the Adriatic, Ionian, and Tyrrhenian Seas. Italy is the fifth most populous country in Europe and the 23rd largest in the world, covering an area of approximately 301,340 square kilometers (116,350 square miles).

Italy has a rich cultural heritage and is known for its history, cuisine, art, architecture, fashion, and natural beauty. Its capital city, Rome, is known for its ancient ruins, such as the Colosseum and the Roman Forum, and its art museums, such as the Vatican Museums. Other popular cities include Florence, Venice, Milan, and Naples, each with its own unique history and attractions.

Italy has a population of approximately 60 million people, with Italian being the official language. The country has a diverse economy, with major industries including tourism, fashion, manufacturing, and services. Italy is also known for its contributions to art, science, and technology throughout history.

Italy has a rich history, having been home to various civilizations and empires throughout its history, including the Etruscans, the Romans, and the Renaissance. It has played a significant role in world events such as the Age of Exploration and colonization of the Americas, and is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, NATO, and the G20.